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Bentley showcases its commitment to precision in its cars through the in-house Metrology team at the Crewe factory.

08 Apr 2020 | International News : U.K.

Deep in the heart of the Bentley factory in Crewe is a large, airy and air-conditioned workshop that visitors, even out of a government lockdown, will never see. It is packed with the kind of precision instruments one would expect to find in a space agency facility or university science lab.

It is here that Head of Metrology Michael Stockdale and his 25 colleagues measure every part of a Bentley to the highest standards of precision.

The Bentley Flying Spur has its interior measured to close tolerances by the in-house Metrology team
Metrology is the science of measurement, and it is fundamental to the quality, performance and longevity of every Bentley that each component is made to consistently precise dimensions. Stockdale and his colleagues can measure every part of each model Bentley makes, from the smallest washer to body panels and interior trim, and ensure that no component strays from the close tolerances prescribed for it.

Having measured components individually, they are measured again as sub-assemblies and once more as part of the finished vehicle. Thus, the Metrology team plays a vital role in ensuring that near perfection is repeatable.

Measuring and enforcing the highest standards of dimensional accuracy is especially important for a vehicle, where multiple components become sub-assemblies.

To take just one example, the retractable Flying B mascot that adorns the bonnet of the Flying Spur smoothly deploys and retracts only because each component in its complex control assembly is made to close and consistent dimensions. It is illuminated and linked to the keyless entry system as the driver approaches the car, yet it must also retract automatically in the event of an accident. To achieve this precise choreography and to ensure that it sits perfectly centred within its plinth, elements of the Flying B system have tolerances as low as 0.15mm.

The W12 engine powering the new Flying Spur requires high precision of less than a micron 
Laymen use 'a hair's breadth' as a description of the tiniest imaginable measure, but such a term would be too imprecise for Bentley's Metrology team. As Stockdale points out, a human hair can be anything from seventeen microns to over one hundred and fifty microns thick.

In contrast, there are instruments within Metrology that can measure down to 0.5 microns. A micron is one millionth of a metre, and a human red blood cell is 5 microns in diameter. Not every component of a Bentley needs to be measured to tolerances of less than a micron, but there are some.

As an example, Stockdale cites the crankshaft at the heart of Bentley's 6.0-litre W12 engine, the most advanced 12-cylinder engine in the world which powers the new Flying Spur.

Though invisible to the naked eye, each of the twelve machined bearing journal surfaces in which the crankshaft sits features minute grooves that hold a microscopic film of oil. By using a high accuracy Perthometer the Metrology team can verify that those minute grooves are within their defined tolerances, in turn ensuring that each W12 engine produces both the immense power and lifelong durability its owners would expect.

The Flying Spur's body is machined entirely out of solid aluminum for 'cubing' as a reference vehicle
As well as measuring individual surfaces and components to microscopic levels of accuracy, the Metrology team measures entire vehicles. The department is home to what are termed 'cubing' reference vehicles, an entire vehicle body machined out of solid aluminium that acts as a template against which panels and interior components are measured.

The cubing Flying Spur is the ideal Flying Spur against which all others are measured, every millimetre of its body scanned using high accuracy digital cameras to create a complete and precise map of the car.

Different materials call for different measuring techniques. The unique three-dimensional diamond quilted leather inserts in the doors and rear quarter panels of the Flying Spur cannot be measured by a tactile device because to touch the surface would distort the reading.

Instead, an optical laser scanner is used to chart and check the precise contours of each diamond. The cabin of the Flying Spur posed a fresh challenge, because of the range of functionality built in for every seat. Everything from the seamless fit of the one-piece headlining, wood trim and sumptuous leather upholstery depends upon achieving close tolerances between a variety of different materials, from wood and metal to fabric and leather.

A brake disc is measured on a concentricity machine
Materials expand and shrink at different temperature, so it's essential that measurements are taken at a consistent reference temperature. Within the Metrology area, the area is kept at a steady 20°C. But for components that demand the highest precision, an inner sanctum with a dedicated climate control system ensures that the temperature never deviates from half a degree Celsius.

Within this area are three gigantic granite blocks to clamp components for ultimate stability essential for an accurate reading. But first, the components have to soak at a consistent temperature for up to a week, so that it's 20°C all the way to the core.

Visitors to Crewe will never visit the Metrology department, nor will the owner of a Flying Spur, Continental GT or Bentayga ever be able to point to the handiwork of its team in their vehicles. Yet the way a Bentley looks, performs and lasts owes everything to the accuracy with which each of its components measures up to the ideal. And for that, the Metrology team are the hidden heroes, custodians of the continuing quest for dimensional perfection. Every Bentley that leaves the factory is a tribute to their unseen contribution.
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